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The Lakota Language



Lakota Grammar

Rules of Accent | Rules of Syntax | Interrogative | Command (Imperative)
Entreaty | Inflection | Person | Tense | Infinitive | Participle
Conjugation | Verb Lists | Articles | A Reservation Conversation | Variations




Morphology


Lakota contains root, composite, and compound words. Composite words are stems with either prefixes, suffixes, or both. Affixes may sometimes function as stems. Compound words are composed of two or more roots. Compound words may also be affixed.


Rules of Accent


In Lakota, only the first or second syllable are normally accented. Three-fourths of all Lakota words are accented on the second syllable.

Rule 1:   The second syllable of any word carries the accent unless it is a suffix; then the stem carries the accent.

Rule 2:   In coumpound words

a.   when the first root is a bisyllable, with the accent on the first syllable, each root retains its own accent;

b.   when the first root is a bisyllable with the accent on the second syllable, the accent on the second root is eliminated;

c.   when the first root is a trisyllable, each root retains its own accent.

There are one or two words stressed on the third syllable.
Important exclusion: when you call somebody, using his name or kinship term, the stress is on the last syllable:

Tunkašila! O'makiyi ye!

Granddad, help me (please)!


Rules of Syntax


These are a few very simple rules for putting words together into sentences. The rules will be helpful as you first undertake to speak Lakota, although they may thereafter guide your ear in sorting out the rules that govern the speech of native speakers. You will quickly discover that Lakota has far more than these few rules, and , indeed, you will discover many exceptions to these rules, too.

The most effective way of acquiring the more complex and subtle rules is by exposure, lots of listening to native speakers.


1.   When using a time expression, place it first in the sentence:

The woman goes to town every day.

Anpetu iyohila winyan kin le otonwahe ta ye.

  day   each   woman   the   this one   town   goes

2.   When using an adjective with a noun, place it after the noun, as in anpetu iyohila   (day   each) in the above example.

3.   When using articles with nouns, place them after the noun, as in winyan kin le   (woman   the   this one) in the above example.

Articles:

kin the; wan a(n); k?un the aforesaid; wanji any (k?)eya some, several

tanyan well; lila very; ataya all;


4.   When using prepositions with nouns, place the prepositions after the noun, as in otonwahe ta   (town   to) in the above example.

5.   Place the direct object (if it is a noun) before the verb:

The dog ate the chicken.

Šunka he kokoyahanla tebye.

dog that chicken ate

(If the direct object is a pronoun, it is attached to the verb, either as a prefix or as an infix:

The woman gave me the money.

Winyan he mazaska hena maku.

woman   the   money   me-gave

The man taught me his language.

Wicaša he oiekicaton ta unspemakiye.

man   the   language   his   me-taught

The rules for thus embedding pronouns as direct objects are best acquired gradually from listening to native speakers do it; even at the cost of occasional awkwardness, you would do well at first to use nouns, not pronouns, as direct objects, thus avoiding the problem.)

6.   Show plurality by inflecting demonstratives and verbs, not nouns:

The dogs ate the chickens.

Šunka hena kokolahanla hena tebwicayab.

dog   those   chicken   ate

7.   In using a verb in a statement, place it at the end of the sentence (unless there is a negation), as ye (goes) in the first example, tebya (ate) in the second, etc.

8.   If making a negative statement, attach the negative particle -šni as a suffix to the verb:

This old man did not help me.

Wicaĥcala kin le omakiyešni.

old man   this   me-help-not

9.   Where English uses the linking verbs 'is' or 'was', omit the verb:

The grass is tall.

Peji hanska.

grass   tall

The sun is hot.

Wi kata.

sun   hot


Word Order

Exclam. Vocative Adverb(s) Subject Object
indirect
Object
direct
Adverb(s) Verb Enclitic(s)
Ito misun ĥtalehan John Mary mazaska witkotkoya k?u welo
Well, brother, yesterday John to Mary money foolishly gave (it's a fact)


10. Questions, the interrogative.

In questions, use essentially the same word order as in statements:

What did the policeman want?

Cannakseyuha he taku ci hwo?   (if the speaker is a male)

Cannakseyuha he taku ci he?   (if the speaker is a female)

policeman   that   what   want + hwo / he

11.   In asking questions, place after the verb a form which identifies your gender and the interrogative nature of your statement as in the above examples. This has the meaning:

...hwo?

I-am-asking-a-question-and-I-am-male

...he?

I-am-asking-a-question-and-I-am-female


Interrogative Words

Lakota word Interrogative Indefinite
taku what? something
tuwa who? someone
tona(kca) how many/much?  
takuwe why?  
tokhel,
tokheške
how? somehow
tokhetu,
toktuka
how is he? he is/was somehow
toka what's wrong with?
what's the matter with?
something is wrong with
tukte which?  
tuktel where? (location) somewhere
tukte el where exactly?  
tokiya where to? (direction) somewhere
tokiyatanhan whence?  
tohan, tohan'l when?  


Note that when asking a question, women put at the end of a sentence the word he?;   men use he? informally and hwo? (hunwo') officially. Another interrogative particle - so?

Nituwe he?   Who are you?

He tuwe he?   Who's that?

Le miye (Peter).   It's me, (Peter).

Nitaku he?   What are you?

He taku he?   What's that?

Nilakota he?   Are you Lakota/Sioux/Indian?

Hiya, maLakota šni.   No, I'm not Lakota/Sioux/Indian.

Wanišicu he?   Are you White?

Han, wamašicu.   Yes, I'm White.

Mi'lahanska / Hasapa / Spayola hemacha.
I'm American (Long Knife) / Black (Skin-black) / Mexican.

Kilakota kteĥcin hemaca.   I'm a wannabe (Turn-Lakota-wants).

He tuwa tawa he?   Whose is that?

Le mitawa.   This is mine.

Taku eniciyapi he?   How do they call you?

  -X emakiyapi.   I'm called X.

Waniyetu nitona he?   How old are you?

-Waniyetu wikcemna nupa amakeyamni.
  I'm 23 (winter 10 2 I'm more 3).

Tuktel yati he?   Where do you live?

-L.A. el wati.   I live in L.A.

Nituktetanhan he?   Where are you from?

-Germany ematanhan.   I'm from Germany.

Toniketu (ka) he?   How are you?

-Matanyan na niš?   I'm fine, and you?

Tanyan yaun he?   Are you all right?

Cinca kin tona wicaluha he? Nicinca tonapi hwo?
  How many children do you have?

Nicinca kin toketupi he?    How are your children?

Tokeške ociciya owakihi he? How can I help you?

Taku cha wacin he? What do you want?

Tokiya ni kta he?   Where will you go?

  Tokiya la he?   Where are you going?

Tokiyatanhan yau he?   Where do you come from?

  Tuktel yaunhan he?   Where have you been?

Tohanl yagli kta he?   When will you return?

Mazaškanškan / Owaphe  tonakca he?   What time is it?

Taku tokhanun han he?   What are you doing?

Loyacin hwo?   Are you hungry?

  - Lowacin (šni)   I'm (not) hungry.

Inipuza he?   Are you thirsty?

  - Imapuza (šni)   I'm (not) thirsty.

Inipi he?   Are you full?

  - Imapi (šni)   I'm (not) full.

Niĥwa he?
  Are your sleepy?

  - Maĥwa (šni)   I'm (not) sleepy.

Wanituka / hunistaka / lugo he?   Are you tired?

  - Wamatuka / humastake / blug^o (šni)   I'm (not) tired.

Nikuz^a he?   Are you sick?

  - Makuz^e (šni)   I'm (not) sick/

Tuktel niyazan he?   Where do you hurt?

  - Nata / tezi mayazan.   My head/stomack aches.

Waniyazan ke šni he?   Are you not ill?

  - Hiya, wamayazan ke.   No, I'm ill. (not Han..., Yes, I'm ill)

Winyeya nanka he?   Are you ready?

  - Winyeya manke (šni).   I'm (not) ready.

He wanlaka he?   Do you see that?

  - He wanblake (šni)   I (don't) see that.

He nayaĥ?un he?   Do you hear that?

  - He nawaĥ?un (šni)   I (don't) hear that.

To(ke)ške Lakotiya eyapi he?   How is it called in Lakota?

Yes = han! (women & men informally);   toš (women);   hau, to (men).

Ohan.   OK, uh-huh.   Wicayake.   You are right.


  Commands - the imperative

Commands are formed with a verb in third person + imperative enclitic (yo/wo, ye/we, ye, yeto', nito). E.g.: Go away! iyaya yo! = he-departs command (man speaking)

You must choose one of the imperative enclitics:

    Man speaking Woman speaking
Command sing yo/wo na
plural po
Permision sing yo/wo ye/we
plural po pe
Mild request sing ye
plural pi ye
Familiar request   yeto nito


In giving orders, place after the verb a form which identifies your gender, the number of your audience, and the imperative nature of your statement:

Don't do that.   (spoken by a female)

He cušni ye.

that do not I-am-giving-an-order-to-a-single-person-and-I-am-female

Don't do that.   (spoken by a male)

He cušni yo.

that do not I-am-giving-an-order-to-a-single-person-and-I-am-male

He cušni po.

that do not I-am-giving-an-order-to-more-than-one-person-and-I-am-male

He cušni pe.

that do not I-am-giving-an-order-to-more-than-one-person-and-I-am-female


In the pairs yo/wo, ye/we y- variant is used after verbs ending in -a, -an, -e, -i, and -in:

Omakiya yo. Help me.

Wo and we are used after -o, -u, and -un:

Le mak?u we.   Give me this (woman speaking). Ceye šni yo.   Don't cry.

Inaĥni yo.   Hurry up.

He mak?u wo.   Give me that.

Le icu wo.   Take this.

Tima iyaya yo.   Go inside (home).

Iyaya yo!   Go away!

Tohinyanki yeto!   Wait a bit, please!

Letan kigla yo.   Get away from here

Leci u wo.   Come here!

Ye' šni yo.   Don't go.

Mni' kte (šni) yelo'.   I will (not) go.

Niĥwa he? Iyunka yo. Ištinma yo.   Are you sleepy? Go to bed. Sleep!

Kikta yo.  : Wake up!

Inila (yanka yo)!   Be quiet!

Tiyopa (kin) yugan yo.   Open the door.

Owanke kahinta yo.   Sweep the floor.

Omakiyaka yo.   Tell me.

Amayupta yo.   Answer me.

Men use:

  1.   when addressing one (singular):

a.   "yo" with the third person singular of verbs ending in "a", "an", "e", "i", "in", and of all verbs when they are negative, as

škata yo, play

ayušten yo, leave it alone

hecon šni yo, don't do that

b.   "wo" with the third person singular of verbs ending in "o", "on", "u", "un", unless "šni" intervenes, as

u wo, come

hecon wo, do that

BUT   hecon šni yo, don't do that

  2.   When addressing more than one (plural):

a.   "po" with the third person singular of any verb, when the order is positive, as

wiyuškin po, rejoice

inyanka po, run

BUT with the third person plural when the order is negative, as

heconpi šni po, do not do that

glapi šni po, do not go home.

b.   "yo" with the third person plural. While this is not very common, when the order is positive, as

upi yo, come, be coming,

it is preferred to "po" when the order is negative, as

heyapi šni yo, do not say that;

nihinciyapi šni yo, do not fear.

Women use:

  1.   When addressing one (singular):

a.   "ye" with the third person singular of verbs ending in "a", "an", "e", "i", "in", and of all verbs when they are negative, as

skata ye, play

ayuštan ye, leave it alone

hecon šni ye, don't do that.

b.   "we" with the third person singular of verbs ending in "o", "on", "u", "un", unless "šni" intervenes, as

  2.   When addressing more than one (plural):

a.   "pi" with the third person singular of any verb, when the order is positive (this pi is medium long),

wiyuškin pi, rejoice

inyanka pi, run

It is not used with the third person plural in that case.

b.   "ye" with the third person plural, when the order is negative, as

heyapi šni ye, don't say that

nihinciyapi šni ye, do not fear.


B.   Entreaty

When the imperative conveys an entreaty rather than a command, "ye" (which never changes to "we") is used by men and women alike, and šni precedes it when the entreaty is negative.

  1.   When the speaker addresses one person (singular), he uses the third person singular followed by "ye", as

inajin ye, please stand up;

u ye, please come;

heye šni ye, please don't say that.

If the verb terminates in a changeable "a" syllable, the "a" becomes "I", as

wokiyaki ye, please speak to him (instead of wokiyaka ye).

  2.   When the speaker addresses more than one (plural), he uses the third person plural followed by "ye", as

glapi ye, please go home;

glapi šni ye, please do not go home.


Inflection


To inflect the Lakota verb correctly, it is necessary to know whether it is transitive, intransitive or reflective, and whether it is simple, composite, or compound. This information is necessary because upon it depends either the classification of the verb (as a rule) or the proper position of the personal pronoun.

  1.   Transitive verbs   (vt.),   are verbs which denote action and require an object. They cannot be used unless their object is mentioned or easily understood.

Transitive verbs, in English and other languages, have two forms, called the active and passive voices.

The active voice is the form of a verb which represents the subject as doing the action, as

I saw him.

The passive voice is the form of a verb which represents the subject as receiving the action, as

I was seen by him.

There is no passive voice in Lakota. Consequently, instead of saying

The boy was killed by a wolf.

we must say

A wolf killed the boy.

šunkmanitu wan hokšila kin kte.

wolf   a   boy the     killed

When no mention is made of the agent, as in

I am wounded.

The Lakota always uses the pronoun of the third person plural:

They wounded me.

Maopi.

me they wounded

  2.   Intransitive verbs   (vi.),   are verbs which denote action or being but require no object. They are of two kinds:

a.   verbs of complete predication, which are used by themselves as complete predicates as

ištinma       to sleep

mani       to walk

Here must be included all transitive verbs when used in their absolute form (v. abs.), that is, verbs which merely express action without indicating an object. The syllable wa prefixed to transitive verbs renders them absolute and incapable of taking an object. Thus we say:

Wowapi wan yawa.
He is reading a book.

but   Wayawa.
He is reading.

Waunyawapi.
We are reading.

b.   verbs of incomplete predication or linking verbs, which require a predicate noun, adjective or pronoun. Some verbs are used both transitively and intransitively, as

nableca,   vt., to break something brittle with the foot.

nableca,   vi., to crack open by itself, as seeds and buds.

Some intransitive verbs become transitive when certain inseparable prepositions are prefixed, as

alowan,   vt., to sing for, in praise of
from lowan,   vi., to sing.

  3.   Relexive verbs   (v. refl.), are verbs formed from transitive verbs by incorporating the reflexive pronoun. There are two kinds:

a.   reflexive verbs of complete predication, as

ontonic'iya,   to hurt one's self
from ontonyan, vt., to hurt one.

b.   reflexive verbs of incomplete predication which requires an objective complement, either a noun or an adjective, as

wicaša ic'icage,   he made himself (became) a man
from wicaša, man, and kaga, vt., to make.

  4.   Simple verbs are prime words to which the personal pronouns are prefixed.

  5.   Composite verbs are words which consist of the base plus one or more prefixes or suffixes, or both. Many of these verbs have the personal pronouns prefixed while others have them inserted (see the examples above).

  6.   Compound verbs are words in which both the base and the adjunct are in themselves complete words. In some compound verbs (a few of them) the pronoun is prefixed;   in others it is expressed even twice.


Examples of Verb Inflection.

  Active verbs Stative verbs Nouns
ti
to dwell
ya
to go
yawa
to read
un
to use; wear
kan
to be old
wašicu
White
I wati ble blawa mun makan wamašicu
I & you unti unye unyawa unk?un unkan waunšicu
we untipi unyanpi unyawapi unk?unpi unkanpi waunšicupi
you (one) yati le lawa nun nikan wanišicu
you (many) yatipi lapi lawapi nunpi nikanpi wanišicupi
he/she ti ye yawa un kan wašicu
they tipi yapi yawapi unpi kanpi wašicupi
they all - aye - wicakan -


Person

Lakota verbs have three persons, the first, second, and third, differing from each other, as a rule, by the incorporated personal pronouns only. The pronoun of the third person is not expressed but understood.

Number

There are three numbers, the singular, dual, and plural. The dual is of the first person only, one speaker addressing another and including him in the action, being, or condition. It is the same in form as the first person plural, but lacks the termination .. The plural is characterized by the syllable " pi" ("pe" is used by women) suffixed to the verb (as demonstrated above).

BUT with some verbs of motion, referring to moving or traveling in company, the third person plural is preferably formed by dropping "pi" and instead:

  1.   prefixing "a" to the third person singular, as

au,   they are coming, from u, instead of upi;

aya,   they are going, from ya, instead of yapi;

ahi,   they arrived, from hi, instead of hipi.

  2.   prefixing "e" to the third person singular of certain other verbs. This "e", moreover, takes the accent, as

emnic'iye, they gather, instead of mnic'iyapi.

  3.   changing "i" into "e" of verbs beginning with "i", which "e" also takes the accent, as

eyunke, they(all) lay down, instead of iyunkapi

;

eyuwage, they(all) crossed(the river), instead of iyuwegapi.

Tense

The form of the Lakota verb by itself does not indicate the time of action or being. The indefinite form may denote either present or past tense.

Nor are there auxiliary verbs like our "be", "have", etc. The contents of the sentence or the special construction must tell which is meant. Adverbs of time, too, are employed to denote time.

The future tense is indicated by the particle "kta" or "kte", which follows the inflected verb, as

u kte, he will come

upi kte, they will come.

When the verb is negative, the particle "šni", not, is placed after "kte", as

akisnipi kte šni, they will not get well.

When the verb terminates in a changeable "a" syllable (not all are such), the "a" becomes "in" in the future tense, as

wotin kte, he will eat, from wota, v.abs., to eat.

Mood

Moods are changes in the form or use of a verb that show the particular manner in which an assertion is made. That one form, with the help of certain unchangeable auxillary particles following the verb, must serve to express the various moods.

The indicative is used to state a fact or ask a question.

The subjunctive, which presents a thought as uncertain, is expressed by the indicative form followed by the particles.

ni, indicating wish, or

k'eš, yunš, tka, etc., indicating condition contrary to fact.

If the verb is negative, the particle "šni" precedes these auxiliary particles.

The imperative, which presents a thought either as a command (A) or as an entreaty (B), is expressed by the third person singular or plural indicative followed by certain other auxiiary particles. If the verb is negative, "šni" preceds these particles.


The Infinitive

The infinitive is the same in form as the third person singular indicative, and is found as such in the dictionary. It can be used but rarely in Lakota. When it does occur, it requires a principal verb which it precedes, as

u maši, he asked me to come (to come he asked me).

The Participle

There is no participle in Lakota;   consequently the verb has no form for it. The Sioux expresses our participle in other ways, but that is a matter of syntax.

Conjugation

While in English (and in other languages), in conjugating a verb, we have a personal pronoun and a verb, both being independent words and undergoing changes by themselves, we have a different process in Lakota. The verb itself remains unchanged. Plurality is expresed by the ending "pi". The various persons are indicated by the inseparable personal pronouns which are either prefixed to or inserted into the verb.

The three forms of conjugations used in Lakota are classified according to the three different sets of inseparable subjective personal pronouns employed by the verbs.


Stative Verbs

tan'ka -- cik?ala -- wakan -- hanska -- ptecela
large -- small -- sacred -- long -- short.

šoka -- zibzipela  suta -- cocola
thick -- thin   firm/hard -- soft

luzahan -- iwaštegla
swift -- slow

sapa -- ĥota -- san -- ska -- šapa -- sota
black -- gray -- whitish -- white -- dirty -- not fully transparent

luta -- ša -- gi -- zi -- to
red-hot -- red -- brown/rusty - yellow (/orange?) green/blue

wašte -- šica
good -- bad

skuya -- pha
tasteful -- bitter

mašte -- kata -- osni; oluluta -- cuwita
hot -- warm -- cold (weather); feeling hot -- feeling cold.

spanyan -- puza
wet -- dry

ksapa -- witko(tko)
wise -- foolish

t?a
dead


Active Verbs

ni -- ti -- tun -- kte
live -- dwell -- give birth -- kill

kute -- o -- šuta
shoot -- hit -- miss

manun -- mani -- nuni
steal -- walk -- wander

na-ĥma -- o-le, a-kita -- iye-ya
hide -- seek -- find

owa -- yawa
write -- read

eya -- iya -- oyaka -- iyunga -- ayupta -- ši
say -- speak -- tell -- ask -- answer -- order

yuta (v.t.), wota (v.i.) -- yatkan
eat -- drink

wanyanka -- naĥ?un
see -- hear

lowan -- iĥaĥa -- ceya -- ĥa
sing -- laugh -- cry -- bury

nuwan -- kinyan -- inyanka
swim -- fly -- run

ya -- u     i -- hi
go there -- come here  arrive there -- arrive here

yunka -- iyotaka -- yanka -- najin -- han -- un (be) un (use)
recline -- sit -- sit/be -- stand -- stand/be

k?u -- yuha -- icu -- iyopeya -- opetun
give -- possess - take -- sell -- buy

ech(a)un -- kaga -- oĥ?an -- škan
do -- make -- behave -- move, act

cin -- kinica
want -- need

ech(a)in -- slolya -- okihi
think -- know -- be able

waci -- ĥ?oka -- škata
dance -- drum-sing -- play, celebrate


Miscellaneous Verbs

el -- ekta
in/at/to (here-there)

tima -- tankal
at home -- out-of-doors

akanl
upon

le -- he -- ka   lel -- hel -- kal
this--that--yonder, here--there--over there

ĥtalehan -- anpetu kin le -- hinhanni kin   ehanni -- nahanĥci -- tokša
yesterday -- today -- tomorrow;             already/long ago -- still -- later


Verbal Particles and Their Order:

VERB han pi kta šni s?a  yelo / he? / yo!

han-ing; pi plural; kta future/irreality; šni not; s?a regularly; yelo it's a fact (man speaking) he?/hwo? question particles; yo! imperative particle.

na and; nainš or; k?eyaš, tka but; ca and consequently; icin that's why; yunkan and lo.


    Active Transitive Verbs

  -kill
me
-kill
us
-kill
you
-kill
you (many)
-kill
him/her
-kill
them
I- - cikte ciktepi wakte wicawakte
I & you- - unnikte unkte wicunkte
we- unniktepi unktepi wicunktepi
you (one)- mayakte unyaktepi - yakte wicayakte
you (many)- mayaktepi yaktepi wicayaktepi
he/she- makte unktepi nikte niktepi kte wicakte
they- maktepi niktepi ktepi wicaktepi


Reflexive ic?i - 'himself; for himself'

I killed myself mic?ikte
I&you killed ourselves unkic?ikte
We killed ourselves unkic?iktepi
You killed yourself nic?ikte
You killed yourselves nic?iktepi
He killed himself ic?ikte
They killed themselves ic?iktepi


Reciprocal kici - 'each other'

I & you(one) kill each other unkicikte
We kill each other unkiciktepi
You kill each other yeciktepi
They kill each other kiciktepi


Benefactive kici - 'for; instead of'

  -kill
for me
-kill
for us
-kill
for you
-kill for
you (many)
-kill for
him/her
-kill
for them
I- - cicikte ciciktepi wecikte wicawecikte
I & you- - unnicikte unkicikte wicunkicikte
we- unniciktepi unkiciktepi wicunkiciktepi
you (one)- miyecikte unyeciktepi - yecikte wicayecikte
you (many)- miyeciktepi yeciktepi wicayeciktepi
he/she- micikte unkiciktepi nicikte niciktepi kicikte wicakicikte
they- miciktepi niciktepi kiciktepi wicakiciktepi


Enclitics

VERB han
"-ing"
continuative
imperfective
pi
plural animate
la
endearing
"little one"
ka
"sort of"
"somewhat"
kta
future,
unreality
šni
not
s?a
usually
habitually
he?
hwo?
question
yo!/ye!
imperative
yelo.
affirmation


Examples with škata, 'to play' (uppercase A stands for changeable sound having the variants: a~e~in):

škate (s)he plays/played.

ška'ta pi they play(ed).

škata han pi
they are/were playing.

škata hin kte šni   they will not be playing.

škatin kta he?   will (s)he play?

škata pi la s?a   the little ones play regularly.

škata yo!   play (man speaking)!   škata po!   play (man speaking to many)

škata ye!   play (woman speaking)!   škata pe!   play (woman speaking to many)

škate yelo.   (s)he plays/played (it is a fact - man speaking)

škate kšto.   (s)he plays/played (it is a fact - woman speaking).




A Reservation Conversation
(from J.S.Karol, 1971)

Wašicu: Hau, John Smith emakiyapi. Taku eniciyapi hwo?
Hello, John Smith they-call-me. What do they-call-you?

Ikcewicaša: Hau, Mato Ptecela emakiyapi.
Hello, Short Bear they-call-me.

W : Canli wanz^i un'pa yo.
Cigarette one smoke.

I : Pilamayaye.
Thanks (Feel good-me-you-made).

W : Tuktel Taĥca In'yanka ti hwo?
Where do the Running Deer live?

I : Chanku kin le ogna waziyatakiya ni na chanku okiz^u icinunpa kin hetan wiyoĥpeyatakiya ni, nahan tipi tokaheya kin hel ti. Nayašna oyakihi šni.
Road this along northward you-go and cross-road second from-that westward you-go and house first there he-lives. You-miss you-can not.

W : Pilamaya. Mazaškanškan tonakca hwo?
Thanks. What time is it (Metal-goes-goes what)?

I : Mazaškan wanz^i.
It's 1:00.

W : Mazaškan wanz^i sam okise heciya waun kta iyececa. Tohanl ekta iwahunni kta hwo?
At 1:30 there I have to be. When it is that I'll reach there?

I : Lilaĥce tehantu šni.
Very far it is not.

W : Maĥpiya aya ca inihinmiciye.
Clouds come so I worried.

I : Hau, mag^az^u nainš icamna kta sece.
Yes rain or snow it probably will.

W : Nahanĥci anpetu wašte ca wakiyagni kte. Lila pilamayaye. Canli (mazaska) kin lena yuha yo.  Tokša ake wancinyankin ktelo.
Still day good so I-start-home will. Many thanks. Cigarettes (money) these have. See you later.

I : Pilamaya. Ake hwo(=?).
Thanks. Come again (?).




Variations in Lakota


Regional variations in pronunciation do occur in Lakota, but they are minimal. The differences are found not only between reservations, but also within a particular reservation. Differences in the written language are far more pronounced, due to the fact that it has only recently been put in writing, and a universally accepted spelling does not yet exist. I trust you will bear this in mind whenever a particular word appearing in this web site is challenged by an outside source. Nonetheless, I expect that corrections and additions will be in order. Please email me with any corrections or suggestions for additions. I have included these sections on the Lakota language because so many guests to The Lodge have requested it. I hope this information is useful to you. Your comments and suggestions are taken seriously;   so much so that the original intention of a Lakota Mythology website has changed to become the ever-growing monster it is today.




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